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The newspaper is the set of printed papers contains the news from around in different categories. The Newspaper has existed since ancient times, when news was spreading in silk leaves or papyrus, or in metal or stone plates. With the advent of the printing press, the newspaper became the first mass media and original form of journalism. Although the information is its most prominent, the newspaper has feature like any medium of communication, the advantage of inform, debate, promote, take opinion, educate and entertain (usually summarized in the triad inform, educate and entertain).
The newspaper as we know it today was born in England in the eighteenth century. Prior to this date, there were certain forms of social communication. Already in ancient Rome there were various means of public information: The public records or records of the town consisted of a series of planks set on the walls of the Imperial Palace or in the forum, which brought together the latest and most important events in the Empire. The subrogation earned their living by selling news or information producing sensationalist nonsense.
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In the Middle Ages sprang the news merchants who drew up the warnings, also called pages by hand. These consisted of four pages written by hand, which had no title or signature, date and name of the city in drawing them up. They were sold in the ports and provided information from the eastern Mediterranean (the place where combat activity was developed from the cross), collected news provided by sailors and pilgrims. These ads were extremely successful and soon were censored by the authorities from across Europe. Also born in ports around the Price-concurrent giving information about prices of goods in the international market, ship schedules, etc.
In the fifteenth century with the invention of printing, advertisements and price-concurrent be stopped manuscripts and printed. Other new journals appeared: the occasional reports of an exceptional fact Eventually, when the occasion demanded. The most famous were those of Columbus, counting the discovery of America. Soon they began to be published by governments, who used them as propaganda. They cover book format and illustrated.
Relations were biannual publications, coincided with the two annual fairs publishers and booksellers, which took place in the city of Frankfort. Identified the primary events in Europe during the six months that separated one from another show
In the sixteenth century are still running ads, casual relationships and a new type of publication: the same as the occasional Canards content but most popular: sensational topics treated: monsters, miracles and the explanation of same is usually always religious.
Since 1609 the Gazettes start running a weekly basis. At first they were printed by private publishers, but soon came under the protection of absolute state that used as propaganda for the monarchy. The most popular journals were the French: The Gazette, Le Journal des Savants, and Le Mercure Galan, all seventeenth century. These publications were very influential in Spain, where they were imitated in the eighteenth century. The first Spanish was the Gaceta de Madrid, 1661.The press in the eighteenth century
The first daily newspaper was born in England in the S. XVIII. It was the Daily Courrant (1702). 1715 in this country had a large publishing and is a large number of publications of varying intervals. The distribution was through town criers. The most important centers of circulation of newspapers were the cafes, where people gathered to read and comment the news. With the development of the press saw the birth of public opinion. It was in England, where he passed the first bourgeois press law, libel ACT, in 1792 and where it appeared, by the end of the century, the business press: The media companies introduced technical innovations, established an information infrastructure for collecting news and improved distribution systems, as developed rail networks. Entrepreneurs appeared with a new mentality for profit modernized their businesses, reduced cost and increased production capacity. An example of this was The Times (1785).The Spanish press in the eighteenth century
In Spain there is no development of the press until the eighteenth century. At this time the newspapers were expensive and were only available to a minority. The editors had only the proceeds of the sale, and that advertising should not be generalized as a means of funding until the nineteenth century.
The press of the eighteenth century was one of the most important channels through which penetrated the ideas presented in Spain.
There are three stages:
1. From 1837 to 1750: consolidation of the press in Spain, with the appearance of the first newspapers such as The Journal of the Literati.
2. Between 1950 and 1970: time of maturity and expertise.
3. Since 1770: a time of decline, many publications disappear due to political developments and external situation (French Revolution). Clearly distinguished two different types of publications, the press learned or newspaper and the popular press.
Were printed with the permission of the Council of Castile and submitted to ecclesiastical censorship. Could be purchased from book stores and street stalls were voceados by blind or gazetteers.
The political and military information was held by the official newspapers that were the Gaceta de Madrid and Mercurio historical and political. Private publications were devoted mainly to cultural or economic issues. In general, defended the advanced ideology and its readers were an enlightened minority.
The death of the French royal family led to the resurgence of censorship and the temporary suspension of the press: King Carlos IV banned the publication of all papers newspapers, except the officers, February 24, 1791.Latest press trends
In 70 starts a crisis that leads to the information society in which we are immersed. The development of new technologies affects all media. It reinforces the tendency towards concentration of issuers. The information increasingly becomes a supranational phenomenon and there is a clear predominance of the agencies and American television.
Many States that kept the privatized public means leaving them in the hands of large business groups. Increasingly becoming more important audiovisual market daily so that they catch the iconic force: the media, even the elite increasingly incorporate the look and color, there are new visual genres, such as computer graphics, and television transmission are included, even in serious newspapers, content roses.
In Spain, after the democratic transition, the press experienced a boom with the appearance of publications of all kinds. In addition to newspapers with story, as ABC and La Vanguardia, new ones appear as El Pais or El Mundo that become solid once in media companies and power groups. One attraction of these means is the list of editors and collaborators among which include the most important writers of our time: Gala, Cela, Threshold, Delibes, Torrente Ballester, García Márquez, etc.